Sunday, February 23, 2020
Why the Managing Ethics and Social Responsibility Issue Is Relevant to the BP (British Petroleum) - Essay Example Ethics are used for setting the limits in regard to the operations of MNCs in countries worldwide. In its common sense, the term ethics is used for referring to Ã¢â¬Ëa code or set of principles by which people liveÃ¢â¬â¢ (Popkin and Stroll 1993, p.1). However, the monitoring of the alignment of organizational decisions with ethics is a difficult task; in fact, it has been proved that most decisions of MNCs may violate ethics, at least at regional level. According to Beer (2010) the decisions of organizations operating in the context of the international market are likely to oppose, more or less, to ethics. Current paper reviews the performance of a well-known multinational corporation, British Petroleum (BP), in regard to ethics. According to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reports, as presented below, the firm highly emphasizes on social responsibility and ethics in regard to all its activities. However, in practice the above argument is not verified. In fact, it is proved that the organiz ation has repeatedly failed in responding to its social responsibilities, causing severe damages on its employees and people living in the areas surrounding its sites; besides, the environmental effects of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s activities cannot be ignored. It is clear that the firm needs to update its operations globally promoting ethics and social responsibility. ... practices with ethics and social responsibility, can be identified by referring to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s existing policies for promoting social responsibility and ethics. At the next level, events proving the violation by the company of ethics will be presented and evaluated using appropriate literature. BP operates in an industry the effects of which on the environment can be significant. For this reason, and under the influence of the accident in Mexico in 2010, the firm has tried to introduce a series of initiatives for improving its relationship with its stakeholders. Daft and Marcic (2008) explain that the organization emphasizes on the continuous increase of its performance in regard to environmental responsibility. Lord John Browne, the GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s Chief Executive, monitors the performance of the organization in regard to the specific sector (Daft and Marcic 2008, p.149). Browne notes that the increase of the needs in oil and gas annually has led to the increase of environmenta l risks, an issue that it is difficult to be managed effectively, due to the lack of control over the global needs in oil and gas (Daft and Marcic 2008, p.149). Moreover, the firm has introduced Ã¢â¬Ëan emissions trading systemÃ¢â¬â¢ (Daft 2007, p.761), in order to improve its performance in locating resources without set environment in risk (Daft 2007, p.761). In addition, the firm has established an Educational Service, which promotes educational schemes for informing students and teachers on the effects of industrial operations on climate change, and the impact of the latter on human life (Ferrell and Hartline 2010, p.556). In 2005 the firm developed its Code of Conduct aiming to show to its stakeholders its efforts in promoting ethics and social responsibility (Ferrell and Hartline 2010, p.556). The
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Corporate finance - Essay Example The important role of SMBs is evident when the economies of the developing nations are considered. SMBs contribute greatly to the gross domestic product in a country, entrepreneurial skill development, generation of employment and innovation to many developing economies. In light of this, the paper will critically analyze the various sources of financing for small and medium scale businesses Due to the good impact of SMBs in the economy of a country, support schemes and programs have been put forth in institutions by some of the developed and developing countries so as to support them (Prasad, C. 2004). This support includes offering loans, expert counseling on the types of credit so as to avoid credit risk, advice and legal assistance on exports by the government of the United States of America through small business administration. For instance, in the late 80s the Nigerian Government established the Entrepreneur Development Programme through the National Directorate of Employment, the objective of this policy was to reduce unemployment level through providing an opportunity for individuals to acquire entrepreneur skills. Further they would be able to secure loans for themselves so that they can start their own small and medium scale enterprises (Dinesh, 2003). Another case was in Mexico whereby the Mexican Development Fund was established so as to provide an arrangem ent of finance to aid agricultural activities. Despite such efforts, investigations reveal that the SMBs are still facing major challenges. Some of the SMBs cannot easily access funds thus posing a major threat to their existence in terms of growth and survival. Ekpenyong and Nyong (1992) states that in some countries like Ghana for example, financial schemes have been launched. They include Micro-finance, venture capitalist trust, and small loan centers among others. Others are export development, Investment Funds and
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Education policy Essay Security, quality education, access to healthcare, prospects of a reasonable job on merit and sound economy are the ingredients to be provided by the state to its citizens to run the state and the society smoothly. Growth of successful nations is denoted particularly to the education. There was a time when people believed that higher education should be available to people of all social classes and, obviously, it was freely available to all who wanted it. The fact that it is not, that public education was once available and now it is very hard to access is indicative of deep problems in Pakistan. Encouraging colleges and universities to raise their own resources by charging higher fees has clearly excluded a significant section of students belonging to poor sections of the society. Education in Pakistan is now so expensive that poor canÃ¢â¬â¢t even imagine of their children becoming doctors and engineers. Our education system is passing through a very bad phase now and it is regarded as perhaps amongst the poorest in the world. Cream of the Pakistani brain is either becoming idle due to non-availability of ever rising cost of education or going to other countries. UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS Article 1 provides; every child has the right to have equal access to an education, irrespective of their color, creed, nationality, ethnicity, or social and financial status, so they may obtain gainful employment and contribute to the growth of their society, being born free and equal in dignity and rights. Life for a common man in Pakistan in this so called Ã¢â¬Å"democraticÃ¢â¬ regime has already become difficult owing to the all-round price rise across the country. Inflation, combined with policies of privatization, has caused a complete deterioration in living standards of the people. Frankly speaking, there is no such thing as democracy in Pakistan. This type of Ã¢â¬Å"democracyÃ¢â¬ has often left the common man in constant struggle for survival. Majority of Pakistanis are living in poverty and unsustainable economic conditions; when they are struggling for their livelihood education loses its utility in their eyes and it becomes far from their desire. But for the riches and powerful corrupt politicians, things are very rosy. Pakistan is suffering terribly for that, with socio-political and economic crises strewn all over the society like a straw hut in a typhoon. Lack of good education and unemployment in Pakistan would contribute many social ills, including crime, prostitution, and the break down in law and order. In Pakistan, providing education to the masses had always been state responsibility. Now there has been a major push for the private provision of educational services. Moreover, corrupt politicians, feudalism, injustice are such problems which have further pressed the most pressed people of the country. Education is a tremendous tool for social change as well as an opportunity out of poverty traps. People trapped in the lower classes have trouble climbing out of it because they lack the tools to do so, because they live in a feudal society that actively works to keep them there, and education can be a form of escape hatch. But Education System in Pakistan In Human development Report Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just 49. 9% educated population. In addition to that, Pakistan is ranked at 113th out of 120 registered UN members according to the research conducted by UNESCO et. all. Some of the very basic flaws of the education system in Pakistan contribute to the economic, ethnic and sociopolitical crisis within the country. Flaws of Education System in Pakistan Firstly, the education system of Pakistan is based on unequal lines. Medium of education is different in both, public and private sector. This create a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. Such a distraught infrastructure is a basic cause of high illiteracy rate in Pakistan and high drop out rates in rural areas and public school. Secondly, regional disparity is also a major cause. The schools in Balochistan (the largest province of Pakistan by Area) are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (the largest province Of Pakistan by Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29. 5% in males and 3% in females. The third major cause of flawed education system in Pakistan is gender discrimination. The current primary school ratio of boys and girls is 10:4, which is a cause of huge concern. For the last few years there has been an increase in the growth of private schools. It is believed that Pakistan is among the most prominent states affected by gender discrimination. That not only harms the quality of education in Pakistan but create a gap among haves and have nots. Fourthly, the lack of technical education is a biggest flaw in the education policy that has never been focused before. Therefore, less technical people means low standard of education. Fifthly, the allocation of funds for education are very low. It is only 1. 5 to 2. 0 percent of the total GDP. It should be around 7% of the total GDP. At that budget allocation, the illiteracy rate in Pakistan would not decrease but rather increase. The federal and provincial governments need to cut down their expenditures in other areas and spend a bigger proportion of income on education. Moreover, the quality of education in most of the public schools and colleges is well below par; the teachers in government schools are not well trained. People who do not get job in any other sector, they try their luck in educational system. They are not professionally trained teachers so they are unable to train a nation. Quality of teaching needs special attention in rural areas where the teachers lack in all departments. In America, Europe and most of the developed countries, the emphasis of the states is on developing virtual education systems i. e. provision of education through online networks. The idea of online education is gathering momentum and many online institutions have been set up which offer online courses and online degrees. The Higher Education Commission and Education ministry need to focus on developing a strong online education network so that students through out the country can benefit. Universities such as Harvard, Berkley and MIT are offering online courses and degrees. It reflects the importance of online education in todays modern high tech world. Finally, Poverty is also another factor that restrict the parents to send their children to public or private schools. So, they prefer to send their children to Madrassas where education is totally free. The government has to make changes to financial infrastructure to improve the situation. Bank loans for education purposes should not be interest based as it discourages the people of Pakistan to acquire loans. Education loans are offered at low rates through out the world and it enable people to acquire quality education. Social awareness regarding all these issues need to be spread and we, the people of Pakistan have to work hand in hand with the government authorities to improve the current system. Our children should not be deprived of their basic right to acquire knowledge. All these issues contribute to high illiteracy rate, which in turn result in economic crisis in shape of high unemployment rate and below-par quality of labor. Moreover, the country suffers on social, political and technological front! There are hundred other problems which need attention but the core-issues need to be addressed as soon as possible. You can read my article Pakistans Educational System which is an overview of the education infra-structure within the country. In todays world, the benchmark for excellence is education. Moreover, if a country has a distraught academic infrastructure, the chances to survive in current competitive world are petite. The illiteracy rate in Pakistan is alarmingly high which calls for critical attention. The federal and provincial governments need to work together towards elimination of flaws of education system in Pakistan. The first time I thought about education and its significance to this society was when I went on a field trip to a school set up by an NGO in the late 1990s. It is now a rightly famous NGO but back then during my sixth grade field trip it just seemed like a project of a group of cranky Karachi businessmen who had decided to spit against the wind of the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s non-interest in providing education to its people. These rich grouches hadÃ gotten together in the chaos of 1995 Karachi and seeing the government more interested in massacring hard-boiled militants than provide social services, they decided to simply pool their own money and build their own schools. How benevolent of them. I would love to see these rich menÃ¢â¬â¢s tax receipts. The citizens of a country shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be dependent on the benevolent charity of rich men. Through their own democratic political process, citizens must enforce upon their richest members the income taxes necessary to fund an education system that reaches every child in the state. The fact that Pakistanis have not done so points towards the weakness of their political system in dealing with its populationÃ¢â¬â¢s educational needs. There is no real shortcut from the state actually enforcing a tax system that extracts the adequate revenue needed to fund the creation of a school near every human settlement in Pakistan. The goal I have described of having a school near every human settlement in Pakistan, is what Pakistan is obligated to do under its current international treaties and the simplest and most straightforward way it can be done. It is certainly not impossible. Pakistan has managed to make sure that no human settlement lacks a mosque. The same needs to be done for schools. Where we went wrong Nationalisation of schools, as was done by the Z. A. Bhutto administration, was a shortcut that cannot be used, and was actually instrumental in ruining government schools. The provincial governments that ran education departments became overstretched then to the point of breaking. The schools that were nationalised saw the prospect of future capital and human investment in them pointless, as the former owners were now dispossessed of their old stake in the schools. Good teachers left, rather than become government employees to be posted in far flung places, and the lack of good teacher training colleges, a necessity unacknowledged up until recently, saw little competent replacement. By nationalising the missionary (Christian), faith-based (Muslim) and private schools, an unwieldy, unplanned expansion of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s school system reduced the status of government school teachers to the corrupted, incompetent, ineffective place it finds itself in today. Teachers do not come to classes, and if they do, they are ill-prepared to teach. It becomes difficult to weed out and penalise underperforming teachers because their status as government employees prevents them from being penalised as they would be in the private sector. As much as this rhetoric may sound similar to the United States, PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ unions continue to shelter wildly incompetent teachers, who beyond being simply bad at teaching, many times do not even show up. Anti-participatory environment We are not helped either by large class sizes, low teacher to student ratios, non-production of teachers in a sufficient quantity and quality by the low number of Pakistani teacher-training colleges. Central to this remains the criminally low expenditure on education by Pakistan, and the failure to collect or divert enough revenue to the education sector. Taking the education emergency of Pakistan seriously would mean finding means to increase the amounts spent on education in Pakistan, on a war footing. Students cannot themselves push for an effective learning environment. Despite the fact that some students actually do want to learn, the environment that exists in classrooms, does not brook dissent. This discourages students from bringing up flaws in their educational setting. This anti-participatory environment in classrooms is facilitated by excessively large class sizes, which discourages teachers from having more individualised interactions with students. This anti-participatory trend in classrooms is complemented by an anti-democratic trend in schools, where no voting is done to elect new prefects or monitors, rather the relevant students are appointed by the school administration. Giving students an opportunity to actually vote for their school leaders might inculcate democratic and participatory values in them at an earlier age, and teach them the responsibility of making their own decisions. If and when these students reach Pakistani universities, they can adequately recognise the entrenched authoritarianism accumulated in many of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s universities over the last three decades. Student politics This persistent anti-democratic trend within PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s educational establishments has reinforced the low academic quality of these institutions. There is little legitimate input from the student bodies on how their education is conducted. Since the 1980s student union elections have been either banned or delayed, witnessing unrest in a violent country like Pakistan ripple into campuses as violence, as opposed to measuredÃ debate. The situation turned chaotic in the 1990s when the general mayhem of the city of Karachi coincided with violence on the Karachi University campus. The presence of such violence made the students of that decade disinterested in participatory politics. This suited the authoritarian and bureaucratic administrations of varsities, as well as the sclerotic, unelected leadership of PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s political parties. They did not mind that the students of Pakistan slid into political apathy. However, the importance of student politics was re-kindled in the 2007 lawyer-led movement against the dictatorship of General Musharraf. The importance of student politics was even acknowledged by the government that won against Musharraf in 2008, when it lifted the ban on student and trade union elections. However, the twist in the tale has been the glaring domestic democratic deficit of this government. The anti-participatory atmosphere on campuses has not lifted as no memorable student elections have been held. Neither have any well-publicised trade union elections been held. And most significantly, no internal party elections have been held in any party that maintains a decisive number of seats in parliament. What the lack of student democracy has to do with PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s state of education is that there is no feedback from students, who are the objects of education. There is no diminishment in the cruel authoritarian atmosphere of Pakistani government classrooms, where teachers, in negligent enough environments can still use sticks to punish students. I never really thought about education in society as a child. That would have been expected of any 11 year old. But when I visited a third grade NGO school classroom in the late Ã¢â¬â¢90s and saw another 11 year old struggling with phrases I would read just for fun, it hit me how serious the problem of illiteracy was for Pakistani society. In a misbegotten decade as that one, beyond the Gordian knot we had witnessed of KarachiÃ¢â¬â¢s bloody politics, the reality of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mis-education struck me as a crueler fate, a dire issue that had to be resolved immediately. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s because these ill-educated children would not remain children much longer. They would soon be badly-educated adults. And if this cruel act of omission by Pakistani society was not amended quick enough, then one more generation would see their adulthoods wasting away under the 21st century curse of illiteracy. Tax the rich, teach the kids. We have an education emergency on our hands. The Education System of Pakistan is divided into five levels 1. Primary level (Class 1 to 5) 2. Middle level (Class 5 to 8th) 3. Secondary level (S. S. C) 4. Intermediate level (H. S. C) 5. University level (Graduation, Masters and Research) Another division of Education System in Pakistan according to the School System 1. 1.Ã Public Schools or Government Schools These schools are managed and financed by the government. Unfortunately, the majority of the schools are in poor condition. Ã » There is no any merit system; teachers and other staff are appointed by the ministers on their own wishes. Ã » There is no any accountability; a large number of GHOST SCHOOLS AND GHOST TEACHERS are listed in the documents. They are receiving funds and pays, but, in reality they did not exists. Ã » In Rural areas, the buildings of public schools are mostly held by Waderas and Feudal. They use them as marriage halls, otaks, bethaks etc. Ã¢â¬Å"Public schools are the nurseries of all vice and immorality. Ã¢â¬ (Henry Fielding) 1. 2. Elite Class Schools (private schools) Due to badly failure of government in providing the Education, the Elite Class Education System in Pakistan got successes very quickly. Today, even poor prefer to send their child in these private schools but because of high fee structure many aspirants are unable to part this Education System. It is generally accepted that, the standard of Elite Class Education System is more reliable and first-rate than Public Schools and Madarsas. There is accountability, transparency and checking system. Generally, the students of private schools are more competent than those of public schools and Madarsas. The government should take lessons from this Education System. These are successive models for the government i. e. CITY SCHOOL, BEACON SCHOOLS, PAK-TURK SCHOOLS etc. 1. 3. Madarsas Madarsas are the largest NGOs of the world. Today in Pakistan about 8000 Madarsas are working. They provide not only Education but also accommodation and food. They provide Islamic as well as worldlyEducation. Mostly, poor parents who are unable to educate their child prefer this Education System. The government should introduce the reforms for the Madarsas and improve their standard. This will be helpful in two ways. Firstly, it will provide free of cost education to poor child. Secondly, it will lessen the burden the government. Before the 18th Amendment, the EducationSystem in Pakistan was the responsibility of Federal Government. The Ministry of Education at Federal level was responsible for formulating Policies, Planning and Promotion of Educational facilities across the country. But, after the passing of 18th Amendment, the responsibilities of Education System are divided among the Federation and the Provinces. The responsibilities of the Provinces 1. To set the Curriculum 2. To set the Syllabus 3. Standards of Education up to Grade 12 (F. Sc, H. S. C, I. Com, etc). 4. Islamic Education The responsibilities of Federation are following 1. Planning and Policy 2. External Affairs; Signing, implementation and monitoring of Bilateral and Multi-lateral Educational Agreements, Pacts, Protocols, MoUs 3. Controlling of Libraries, museums, and similar institutions 4. Federal agencies i. e. FATA 5. Special Studies 6. Inter-provincial matters and co-ordination. Ã¢â¬ 7. Legal, medical and other professions. 8. National planning and national economic coordination including planning and coordination of scientific and technological research. 9. National Education Policy and clear cut Domain over the following acts. 1. 1. Centres of Excellence Act 1974 2. Area Study Centres Act 1975 3. Pakistan Study Centres Act 1976 4. National Book Foundation Act 1972 5. Fed. Board of Intermediate Sec Education Act 1975 6. Federal Directorate of Education Isb. [Article 142 (d)] 7. Federal Supervision of Curricula, Textbooks and Standards of Education Act 1976 8. National Education Foundation Ordinance 2002. Source: http://www. defence. pk/forums/national-political-issues/125588-education-system-pakistan-good-bad. html#ixzz2PKkMjbtM Flaws hovering over PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s education system Filed under ISSUES 0 According to the reports of Human development our country is placed at 136th with just 49. 9 percent educated population. There is lack of uniform education system. Private and Govt. educational institutions has different syllabus. The flaws in education system lead to sociopolitical, economic and ethical issues in our society. Our education system is based on uneven lines. Even the medium of education is different in private and public educational institutions. This inequality has divided people among two segments. Such a distressed educational infrastructure is a crucial cause of increasing rate of illiteracy in Pakistan. The regional discrepancy is also main reason illiteracy in Pakistan. The schools in largest province of Pakistan Baluchistan are not establish and sparked as schools in Punjab. There is lack of awareness among people about the significance of education. In FATA the literacy rate is very poor constituting 29. 5% in men and 3% in women. The gender discrimination is also one of the major causes of educational flaws in country which is projecting the boys and girls primary schools ratio 10:4 correspondingly. In the last few years many new primacy schools for girls and boys are established but still there is need to establish more and more primary schools to meet the educational needs of increasing population. In the last decade the growth of private sector schools is tremendously increased. The private schools trend not just harms the quality of education but also created a huge gap between rich and poor. The people of lower class couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t afford the fees of private educational schools and colleges. In public schools there is lack of quality education. There is also shortage of required facilities like qualified, train staff, furniture and school buildings etc. Our educational policy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on technical education. There are very few technical institutions and less technical trained people in country. The funds allocated for the education are not sufficient the funds are just about 1. 5 % to 2. 0% of total GDP. Although to promote the education the funds must be about 7 percent of total country GDP. With increased education budget the literacy rate in country will surely increased. The provincial and federal Government both need spend a larger portion of their income on promoting education. Author: Rizwan Ghani Posted On: Tuesday, August 02, 2011 Source/Reference: www. pakobserver. net Total Views :1320| After 18th Amendment, improvement of education in Pakistan to international standards can be done with help of international frameworks including Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and boards like National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME). Federal and provincial governments have to address the issue of teaching language (English, Urdu or regional languages), standardization of curriculum, and dealing with two-track education system- Urdu and English medium to take local and international exams. These tested frameworks can bring the progress of decades in Pakistan while saving billions of dollars. Thus, Pakistan needs to adopt appropriate policies to raise education standards, sustain economy and earn foreign exchange. The political, social and education complexities of teaching language can be controlled with help of international frameworks. PISA does not require the member states to change curriculums, teaching languages and teaching methodologies. It allows governments to periodically monitor outcomes of national education systems within internationally agreed framework. It provides a basis for international collaboration in defining and implementing educational goals and skills that are relevant to adult life (professional and social). PISA reading, mathematics and general science frameworks help bring national education at par with international standards. Around half a million 15-year-olds from 75 countries representing 28 million students, participated in PISA 2009 assessments and surveys. Pakistan can use PISA to improving national education standards in all provincial languages (www. pisa. oecd. org). Teaching in local languages can improve PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s education standards internationally. According to the 2011 Writing Framework for National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) of America, good writing instruction empowers students to acquire new knowledge and to develop critical thinking skills. This is true of writing in all subject areas, not just English language http //www. state. nj. us/education/assessment/naep/results/writing/2011naep. PISA and NAEP framework rubrics allow student evaluations irrespective of language. Learning and teaching in mother tongue is a universal human right recognized by UN. China, was a top scorers in 2009 PISA testing http //www. nytimes. com/2010/12/07/education/07education. html. It shows education in mother tongue does not affect nationÃ¢â¬â¢s international competitiveness and national education standards. Since education is a provincial subject, therefore provinces should be free to impart education in local languages, make English and Urdu as optional languages. Provinces can issue degrees with pass/fail with English/Urdu or both to free the country from politics of language. It will allow students to continue higher education without passing compulsory languages, which is a major contributor to school and college dropouts. It will allow the students to join job market who do not wish to continue with further education. The employer can omit or consider language(s) pass/fail status of candidate at the time of employment. On the other hand, the higher education institutions can keep compulsory languages as part of admission criteria. In line with many American universities, a six months period can be given to first year university students to clear compulsory languages. In terms of syllabus, international frameworks and boards can help PakistanÃ¢â¬â¢s policy makers develop required syllabuses, fulfill demands of local market, and meet national education objectives to bring national and international education at par. They allow improving exam testing and incorporating modern technology in reading and writing. In addition, they facilitate linking of national boards to international boards like NBME (www. nbme. org). NBME model allows state medical qualified doctors to take national level exams, upgrade national education and examination standards and link them to rest of the world. It allows tens of thousands of international medical graduates to take United States Medical Licensing Exam without actually studying in American medical colleges. It is equally true for British, Australian and New Zealand medical boards. This model can help cut cost of professional education and fight poverty in Pakistan. Based on these frameworks and models, federal and provincial governments of Pakistan should collaborate to standardize local education and bring it equal to international standards. Islamabad should hold annual summits with China and western countries in line with reports of annual Indo-US higher education summits planning collaboration of universities in both countries. In addition, Pakistan needs to allow private publishers to print books according to the contents of given courses. It will improve concepts of students, standard of books and education. The existing control of federal government on higher education needs to be changed by allowing provinces complete control of universities, scholarships, hiring, training etc. Federal government needs to become a regulatory body instead of controlling authority and facilitates provinces to standardize higher education, provincial education and bring it equal to international levels. Federal education setup should work with ministry of labor and manpower to identify and develop human resource for interprovincial and overseas market, work with foreign missions to issue annual forecast of overseas jobs and train foreign workers and students. Pakistan needs to organize education to cater to local and international needs, attract foreign investors and earn foreign revenue. Reportedly, America and Britain earned $31bn and ? 8 bn in 2010 from foreign students respectively. China is charging $5333 boarding lodging fee annually for a five-year MBBS and one-year internship. It is also offering seven-year specialization degree programs (5 years MBBS and 2 years specialization) in most medical fields. Beijing has gained international recognition through standardized tuition fees, transparency, qualified staff and allowing foreign students and teachers in local universities (http //www.4icu. org/cn/). The Chinese model can help Pakistan cut prices of professional education by 50 percent and train surplus number of local and foreign students to sustain domestic and international needs. In line with China, Pakistan should also take necessary steps to attract flocks of foreign students, interns and investors. Finally, a debate is going on in China on two-track system- one for national college entrance exam (the gaokao) and other for international exams. Imran KhanÃ¢â¬â¢s PTI is deliberating about single education system. Pakistan can overcome challenge of teaching language, two-track system (English and Urdu medium) and bringing local education at par with international with help of international frameworks, NBME and more freedom to provinces. | Pakistans Education System and Links to Extremism Author: Jayshree Bajoria October 7, 2009 * Introduction * A Dysfunctional System * Government Reform Plans * The Madrassa Myth? * Reforming Madrassas * U. S. Policy Implications. Pakistans poor education system has increasingly become a matter of international concern. Lack of access to quality education, which in turn limits economic opportunity, makes young Pakistanis targets for extremist groups, some experts say. The World Bank says nearly half the adult population of Pakistan cant read, and net primary enrollment rates remain thelowest in South Asia. Experts say the system suffers from inadequate government investment, corruption, lack of institutional capacity, and a poor curriculum that often incites intolerance. In August 2009, chief counterterrorism adviser to the White House John Brennan, summing up a concern held by many U. S. terrorism experts, said extremist groups in Pakistan have exploited this weakness. It is why they offer free education to impoverished Pakistani children, where they can recruit and indoctrinate the next generation, he said. There have been some efforts by the Pakistani government, Western governments, and the World Bank to reform the system, but serious challenges remain. A Dysfunctional System According to the Pakistani governments National Education Policy 2009 (PDF), three parallel streams in educationpublic schools, private schools, and Islamic religious schools, or madrassashave created unequal opportunities for students. Of the total number of students going to primary school (grades 1 to 5), 73 percent go to public or government schools, 26 percent to private schools, and less than 1 percent to madrassas, according to the Karachi-based policy research institute Social Policy and Development Center. Within the public and the private sector, there are elite schools catering to a small minority of students. The majority of students attend low-quality private and public schools with poor curriculum, limited teaching materials, and inadequate number of properly trained teachers, or in many cases absent teachers. [N]o Pakistani leader has had the courage to implement serious [education] reforms- Pervez Hoodbhoy The government-mandated curriculum is a major concern for Western observers who say it encourages intolerance and a narrow worldview. Except in some elite private schools, which do not follow the government-prescribed curriculum, all public schools and registered private schools have been required to teach Islamiyat, or Islamic studies, for nearly thirty years. In addition to Islamiyat, many scholars have noted that the government curriculum uses Islam for a wide array of controversial ideological objectives, writes C. Christine Fair in the 2008 book The Madrassah Challenge. A 2003 report on the state of curriculum and textbooks by the Islamabad-based independent Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI) said that for over two decades.
Monday, January 20, 2020
As societies become more complex a complex change came about. The social system elevated entire categories of people above others, providing one segment of the population with a disproportionate share of money, power and schooling. To a considerable degree, the class system in the United States rewards individual talent and effort. But, our class system also retains elements of a caste system; Ascribed status greatly influences what we become later in life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Nothing affects social standings in the United States as much as our birth into a particular family, something, which we have no control over. Being born to privilege or poverty sets the stage for our future schooling, occupation and income. Research suggests that at least half of the richest individuals, those with hundreds of millions of dollars in wealth, received their fortunes primarily from inheritance. By the same token, the Ã¢â¬Å"inheritanceÃ¢â¬ of poverty and the lack of opportunity that goes with it just as surely shape the future for those in need. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã People of both sexes are born into families at every social level. Yet, on average, women earn lower income, accumulate less wealth, enjoy lower occupational prestige, and place lower in some areas of educational achievement than men do. Households headed by women are ten times more likely to be poor than those headed by men. Women make $0.75 for every $1.00 that men make. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Race is strongly connected to social position in the United States. Overall, white people have higher occupational standing than African Americans, and they receive more schooling, especially at the college level and beyond. These differences are evident in median income: African American families earned $26,522 in 1998, which is just 59 percent of the $44,756 earned by white families. Higher income is a key reason that 77 percent of white families are more likely to own their own home, than black families, 49 percent. Another reason for the racial disparity involves family patterns. African American families with children are three times more likely than their white counterparts to have only one parent in the home. Single-parenthood is a strong predictor of low family income. Ethnicity, as well as race, shapes social stratification in the United States. Throughout our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s history, people... ...n with no husband present, while just seven percent of poor families are headed by single men. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã White people usually in a more privileged position to begin with, have been more upwardly mobile than Africans or Hispanics in recent decades. Women also tend to have less opportunity for upward mobility as well, since the majority of women tended toward clerical or service positions. These positions tend towards little advancements. When a marriage ends in divorce (as roughly as 50% do) women commonly experience a downward movement, with the loss of income and a host of benefits, including health care coverage and insurance benefits. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Social mobility is common in the United States. However there are only small changes from on generation to the next. Without an aristocracy, many people feel that they have a chance at the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ since Americans believe in the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"All men are created equalÃ¢â¬ statistics show, however, that not all men are created equal, but created Ã¢â¬Å"unequalÃ¢â¬ , especially minorities and women. Despite theses difficulties, there is home to climb the Ã¢â¬Å"social ladderÃ¢â¬ and be a part of the Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬
Sunday, January 12, 2020
A sickly ten-year-old boy lives a miserable life in the house of his domineering cousin guardian. However, He would not live another 5 years of his life because he is sick. He creates a fantasy religious cult in a garden shed, where his idols are a hen and a ferret. He is a lonely and imaginative young boy. One day he bought a polecat-ferret and named it Sredni Vashtar. Conradin lived with Mrs De Ropp, his guardian. She is the one who took care of Conradin and responsible to serve shelter, food and clothes for conradin. Although they lived together, Mrs De Ropp dislikes Conradin. She never shows her concern toward Conradin. In the story, Conradin keeps two animals in backyard shed which is a hen and a ferret. But, Mrs. De Ropp discovers the hen and told to Conradin that she has sold the hen to the butcher. When his guardian gets rids rid of his hen, he prays to the ferret for revenge. Then, Conradin turn his devotion to the Sredni Vashtar, a great ferret. It gives happiness to Conradin although he is sick. Sredni Vashtar is like a god for Conradin. One day, Mrs. De Ropp realized that Conradin was keeping something else from her in the shed where Sredni Vashtar stayed. She goes the shed again. At last she finds Sredni Vashtar while Conradin prays to his god for the safety of his ferret. She went there to check it but she was been bitten in the throat by the ferret and died. Sredni Vashtar bite Mrs. De Ropp. The maid went to the shed and shocked. She screamed out loud as she discovers the dead body of Mrs. De Ropp while Conradin enjoys toast in the kitchen. The Lumber-Room One morning, a boy called Nicholas doesn't want to eat his breakfast, and puts a frog in his bowl. His distant aunt gives out to him for this, and Nicholas's two cousins and younger brother are taken to the seaside at Jagbourough, while he has to remain at home as a punishment. When the other children have left, Nicholas's distant aunt goes to work in the garden and commands him to stay out of the gooseberry garden. Nicholas instead takes the key from a shelf in the library and sneaks into the lumber room, where he is never allowed to go. He has lots of fun in the lumber room. He sees lots of beautiful and strange objects, such as old ornaments, tapestries, and a teapot shaped like a duck. He finds a big book with pictures of birds in it. While he is looking at a picture of a duck, the aunt screams for him. Nicholas finds that she has fallen into a tank of water, and refuses to help her out on the grounds that she is an impostor. Nicholas's cousins and brother come back from the sea in a very bad mood. They have had no fun at all because the tide was in and one of them had sore feet. The aunt was rescued from the watertank by a kitchen maid after more than half an hour. Only Nicholas is happy because he is thinking of a tapestry depicting hounds and a stag.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Introduction My paper literary artist Alice walker and visual artist Van Goth are best artist in the world, they have many similar things and different things, they are come from different century, different country, they have different family background, they have different work and life. People have different views on them. They both well know and both have a lot of fans in the world. Compared their difference and similar, life and work. We could links the two lives and their work together. For my two artist, they both had a hard time, Alice Walker was accidentally injured in the right eye and one of her brothers opened fire and she lost her right eye, She lost her baby because of sad, She experienced several painful periods of wantingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦She sketched, painted watercolors, painted wildflowers, bouquets, and so on, and collected them. Van Gogh s grandfather was also a priest. Three of the company s uncle, three, are quite successful art dealers. Van Gogh s father make art dealer with the three uncle feeling is very good, also often talk about art, therefore, which van Gogh grew up in the family, has been with religion and art has a deep origin., that is huge different between Alice Walker. They lived different times, Van Gogh in the second industrial revolution period, Alice Walker after the end of the Second World War, and in the US civil rights movement during the period. They lived different country, Alice walker from American, The abuse of violence by the police, the violation of human rights, including the lynching of blacks, the falsification of charges and the illegal and forced detention are common. In fact, apartheid is seen everywhere in the United States, Which made her join in this political campaign for racial equality. In her novels, she vividly reflects the plight of black women, and praises the spirit of their struggle with adversity and the strong character of self-reliance. To distinguish herself from other feminists, she proposed the unique concept of Womanism. If womanism is the theory, her long novel, The Color Purple, is a concrete practice of this theory. In Van GothÃ¢â¬â¢s country Netherlands, a beautiful and quiet country, it has so many famous artists in the history:Show MoreRelatedBrief Summary of the Harlem Renaissance.1863 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRenaissance marked the first time that mainstream publishers and critics took African American literature seriously and that African American literat ure and arts attracted significant attention from the nation at large. Although it was primarily a literary movement, it was closely related to developments in African American music, theater, art, and politics. BEGINNINGS The Harlem Renaissance emerged amid social and intellectual upheaval in the African American community in the early 20th centuryRead MoreThe Discourse Community Of The English Subject2328 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagescommunicators who share the same common goals or interests and use different forms of communication to achieve these goals. Some of these forms of communication may range from reading, writing, the use of technology such as blogging and emailing, and even visual art such as painting and drawing. As an English major focusing on the aspect of creative writing, the discourse community I so happened to be associated with is of the English subject. The discourse community of the English literature is made up ofRead MoreThe Studio System Essay14396 Words Ã |Ã 58 Pagesdifficult to judge the work of the individuals who did the actual set design and visual design of the films of the thirties. In looking at art direction in the 30s you are really looking at the work of the heads of the art department. The style of these art directors is often difficult to judge because their personal contribution to the films they made is often debatable. Their control over the visual aspects of the films is unarguable. If a movie-goer of the 1930s new theRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesProject Manager: Kelly Warsak Senior Operations Supervisor: Arnold Vila Operations Specialist: Ilene Kahn Senior Art Director: Janet Slowik Interior Design: Suzanne Duda and Michael Fruhbeis Permissions Project Manager: Shannon Barbe Manager, Cover Visual Research Permissions: Karen Sanatar Manager Central Design: Jayne Conte Cover Art: Getty Images, Inc. Cover Design: Suzanne Duda Lead Media Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc. Composition:Read MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pageslamentable. Taken together, the key themes and processes that have been selected as the focus for each of the eight essays provide a way to conceptualize the twentieth century as a coherent unit for teaching, as well as for written narrative and analysis. Though they do not exhaust the crucial strands of historical development that tie the century togetherÃ¢â¬âone could add, for example, nationalism and decolonizationÃ¢â¬âthey cover in depth the defining phenomena of that epoch, which, as the essays demonstrate
Friday, December 27, 2019
Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. For modern students of Latin, De bello Gallico is usually the first piece of real, continuous Latin prose. Caesars commentaries are valuable for those interested in European history, military history, or the ethnography of Europe since Caesar describes the tribes he encounters, as well as their military engagements. The commentaries should be read with the understanding that they are biased and that Caesar wrote to enhance his reputation back in Rome, passing blame for defeats, justifying his own actions, yet probably accurately reporting the basic facts. The Title Caesars title for The Gallic Wars is not known for sure. Caesar referred to his writing as res gestae deeds/things done and commentarii commentaries, suggesting historical events. In genre it appears to be close to the Anabasis of Xenophon, a hypomnemata memory helpsÃ¢â¬âlike a notebook to be used as a reference for later writing. Both Anabasis and the Gallic War commentaries were written in the third person singular, relating historical events, with the intention of sounding objective, and in simple, clear language, so that the Anabasis is often the first continuous prose beginning Greek students face. In addition to not knowing for sure what Caesar would have considered its proper title, The Gallic Wars is misleading. Book 5 has sections on the customs of the British and Book 6 has material on the Germans. There are British expeditions in Books 4 and 6 and German expeditions in Books 4 and 6. The Pros and Cons The downside of the standard reading De bello Gallico during the early years of Latin study is that it is an account of battles, with descriptions of tactics, techniques, and materials that can be hard to understand. There is debate as to whether it is dry. This evaluation depends on whether you can figure out what is going on and visualize the scenes, which in turn depends on your understanding of military tactics in general, and Roman techniques, armies, and weaponry, in particular. The upside is, as Vincent J. Cleary argues in Caesars Commentarii: Writings in Search of a Genre, that Caesars prose is free of grammatical error, Grecisms, and pedantry, and rarely metaphorical. It overwhelmingly reads as Ciceros tribute to Caesar. In Brutus, Cicero says that Caesars De bello Gallico is the best history ever written. Sources Caesars Commentarii: Writings in Search of a Genre, by Vincent J. Cleary. The Classical Journal, Vol. 80, No. 4. (Apr. - May 1985), pp. 345-350.Style in De Bello Civili, by Richard Goldhurst.The Classical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 7. (Apr. 1954), pp. 299-303.